They are mostly used for passenger transport for business or leisure applications. Depending on the custom-made or high-end designs, these vehicles can accommodate a group of 12 to 15 people. These are featured with additional comfort, safety, space, technology, and design in relation to conventional RVs. End users of these vehicles include the individuals and fleet owners, who utilize the vehicle for both, business and recreational activities such as camping and tourism.
Ethanol yield has grown 3. Further improvements on best practices are expected to allow in the short to mid-term an average ethanol productivity of 9, liters per hectare. There are 15 additional plants dedicated exclusively to sugar production. In there wereworkers employed by these industries, and as ethanol production expanded, by there wereworkers employed in the sugarcane cultivation and industrialization, includingworkers in the sugarcane fields,workers in the sugar mills, andworkers in the ethanol distilleries.
They include the economic crisis of ; poor sugarcane harvests due to unfavorable weather; high sugar prices in the world market that made more attractive to produce sugar rather than ethanol;    a freeze imposed by the Brazilian government on the petrol and diesel prices.
By a total of 41 ethanol plants out of about have closed and the sugar-cane crop yields dropped from tonnes per hectare in to 69 tonnes per hectare in Evolution of the ethanol productivity per hectare of sugarcane planted in Brazil between and Variation of ethanol prices to producers in reflecting the harvest season supply.
A key aspect for the development of the ethanol industry in Brazil was the investment in agricultural research and development by both the public and private sector. The increase of the index total recoverable sugar TRS from sugarcane has been very significant, 1.
The average annual improvement was 0. Four research programs, two private and two public, are devoted to further genetic improvement. Identification of 40, cane genes was completed in and there are a couple dozen research groups working on the functional genomestill on the experimental phase, but commercial results are expected within five years.
This advance combined with an expected 6. Most of the industrial processing of sugarcane in Brazil is done through a very integrated production chain, allowing sugar production, industrial ethanol processing, and electricity generation from byproducts.
Milling and refining[ edit ] See also: Sugarcane Once harvested, sugarcane is usually transported to the plant by semi-trailer trucks. The main objective of the milling process is to extract the largest possible amount of sucrose from the cane, and a secondary but important objective is the production of bagasse with a low moisture content as boiler fuel, as bagasse is burned for electricity generation see belowallowing the plant to be self-sufficient in energy and to generate electricity for the local power grid.
Before evaporationthe juice is filtered once again, producing vinassea fluid rich in organic compounds. The syrup resulting from evaporation is then precipitated by crystallization producing a mixture of clear crystals surrounded by molasses.
A centrifuge is used to separate the sugar from molasses, and the crystals are washed by addition of steam, after which the crystals are dried by an airflow. Upon cooling, sugar crystallizes out of the syrup.
Fermentation, distillation and dehydration[ edit ] See also: Ethanol fermentation and Azeotropic distillation The resulting molasses are treated to become a sterilized molasse free of impurities, ready to be fermented. In the fermentation process sugars are transformed into ethanol by addition of yeast.
The yeast is recovered from this wine through a centrifuge. Making use of the different boiling points the alcohol in the fermented wine is separated from the main resting solid components. Further dehydration is normally done by addition of chemicals, up to the specified Since the early days, bagasse was burnt in the plant to provide the energy required for the industrial part of the process.
Today, the Brazilian best practice uses high-pressure boilers that increases energy recoveryallowing most sugar-ethanol plants to be energetically self-sufficient and even sell surplus electricity to utilities.
Several authors estimated a potential power generation from the use of sugarcane bagasse ranging from 1, to 9, MWdepending on the technology used and the use of harvest trash. According to a study commissioned by the Dutch government in to evaluate the sustainability of Brazilian bioethanol " The electricity used for distillery operations has been estimated at The production of surplus electricity could in theory be increased from 5.
Energy-use associated with the production of sugarcane ethanol derives from three primary sources: In the agricultural sector, This includes energy from numerous inputs, including nitrogen, phosphate, potassium oxide, lime, seed, herbicides, insecticides, labor and diesel fuel. The industrial sector, which includes the milling and refining sugarcane and the production of ethanol fuel, uses 3.The report is a comprehensive analysis of the market and gives a detailed information on the market dynamics such as drivers, restraints, trends, and opportunities.
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