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Between andthe United States contended with a foreign biological weapons program, bioterrorism, and a pandemic. The anthrax attacks demonstrated that non-state actors could terrorize civilian populations with biological weapons as well. A strange outbreak of severe acute respiratory syndrome SARS in and new avian and swine flu strains provided further reminders of the pandemic potential of infectious diseases.
While each individual threat posed limited danger to the nation, together they raised awareness of the catastrophic potential of disease and spurred large-scale government demand for vaccines to defend soldiers and civilians.
Even so, only one new biodefense vaccine was licensed during this period. Many candidates were technologically feasible and well funded. A next generation anthrax vaccine, for example, has been a top priority for the U.
The United States was once capable of mounting rapid development campaigns in response to national emergencies. World War II—era programs generated ten new or improved vaccines against diseases of military significance.
In some cases, these programs produced new vaccines in time to meet the objectives of specific military operations. Botulinum toxoid, for example, was mass-produced before D-day in response to faulty intelligence that Germany had loaded V-1 bombs with the toxin, and a Japanese encephalitis vaccine was developed in anticipation of an Allied land invasion of Japan.
The ability to develop new vaccines quickly is essential to national security and public health. As biological threats proliferate and new diseases continue to emerge, we have an urgent need to understand the conditions that foster timely innovation.
Presentday vaccine programs tinker with push and pull policies such as research grants or market guarantees to spur innovation, but they rarely scrutinize the development process itself to address critical obstacles to innovation.
Long Shot examines the developmental history of vaccines to uncover the conditions that first drove, and later inhibited, vaccine innovation. This historical investigation provokes important questions for today: What factors foster timely vaccine innovation? What are the dynamics of industrial decision making during national security crises?
How can we generate innovation for medicines that are socially valuable but commercially unappealing? How have military-industrial partnerships changed, and why does this matter for vaccine development? And finally, how can history inform efforts to rebuild biodefense capabilities in the twenty-first century?
For the military, fighting disease has always been an important corollary to fighting the enemy.
History is rife with battles in which bugs played a larger role than bullets. While these non-state actors have had limited success, past performance is not predictive of future outcomes.
Biological weapons will remain inherently attractive to dissatisfied groups seeking asymmetric advantages because these weapons are less expensive and more difficult to trace than nuclear weapons.
Over time, supply will grow to meet demand as the economic, technical, and educational obstacles continue to erode. Opportunities for natural diseases to emerge and spread are increasing as well.The firm should always produce at the point where MR=MC.
If they move to the left or right of this point, total profit would drop.
As the change in total revenue changes, so does the cost of production. In each case, indicate whether the firm should produce in the short run or shut down in the short run, or whether additional information is needed to determine what it should do in the short run a. Total cost exceeds total revenue at all output levels.
Shut down in the shirt run. b. Total variable cost exceeds total revenue at all output levels. Chapter 8. Competitive Firms and Markets We have learned the production function and cost function, the question now is: how much to produce . We will write a custom essay sample on All Firms Should Produce at MR=MC specifically for you for only $ $/page.
Start studying Microeconomics #3. Learn vocabulary, terms, and more with flashcards, games, and other study tools. Search. how much should it produce to maximize profits?
6, units. A market in which a few firms produce all or most of the market supply of a particular good or service. The four largest remaining firms (at the time)— Merck, Â Wyeth, Aventis Pasteur, and GlaxoSmithKline—went from controlling 50 percent of the U.S.
market in to controlling 75 percent to 80 percent in Several of these firms developed monopolies in noncompeting product lines.