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Paul-Elder Critical Thinking Framework Critical thinking is that mode of thinking — about any subject, content, or problem — in which the thinker improves the quality of his or her thinking by skillfully taking charge of the structures inherent in thinking and imposing intellectual standards upon them.
Paul and Elder, The Paul-Elder framework has three components: They need to be able to identify the "parts" of their thinking, and they need to be able to assess their use of these parts of thinking.
Elements of Thought reasoning The "parts" or elements of thinking are as follows: All reasoning has a purpose All reasoning is an attempt to figure something out, to settle some question, to solve some problem All reasoning is based on assumptions All reasoning is done from some point of view All reasoning is based on data, information and evidence All reasoning is expressed through, and shaped by, concepts and ideas All reasoning contains inferences or interpretations by which we draw conclusions and give meaning to data All reasoning leads somewhere or has implications and consequences Universal Intellectual Standards The intellectual standards that are to these elements are used to determine the quality of reasoning.
Good critical thinking requires having a command of these standards. According to Paul and Elder, the ultimate goal is for the standards of reasoning to become infused in all thinking so as to become the guide to better and better reasoning. The intellectual standards include: Clarity Could you illustrate what you mean?
Could you give me an example? Accuracy How could we check on that?
How could we find out if that is true? How could we verify or test that? Precision Could you be more specific? Could you give me more details? Could you be more exact?
Critical thinking is sometimes broadly defined as "thinking about thinking." Critical thinking skills include the ability to interpret, verify, and reason, all of which involve applying the principles of logic. Critical thinking is thinking about things in certain ways so as to arrive at the best possible solution in the circumstances that the thinker is aware of. In more everyday language, it is a way of thinking about whatever is presently occupying your mind so that you come to the best possible conclusion. Critical thinking is an approach to the world, a way of life that goes beyond skill or technique. Critical thinkers have hearts as well as heads, and their overall attitudes or habits of mind are at least as important as their arsenal of skills.
Relevance How does that relate to the problem? How does that bear on the question? How does that help us with the issue? Depth What factors make this difficult? What are some of the complexities of this question? What are some of the difficulties we need to deal with?
Breadth Do we need to look at this from another perspective? Do we need to consider another point of view? Do we need to look at this in other ways? Logic Does all of this make sense together?Paul-Elder Critical Thinking Framework Critical thinking is that mode of thinking – about any subject, content, or problem — in which the thinker improves the quality of his or her thinking by skillfully taking charge of the structures inherent in thinking and imposing intellectual standards upon them.
In a seminal study on critical thinking and education in , Edward Glaser defines critical thinking as follows “The ability to think critically, as conceived in this volume, involves three things: (1) an attitude of being disposed to consider in a thoughtful way the problems and subjects that come within the range of one's experiences, (2) knowledge .
critical thinker, enumerating the qualities and characteristics of this person rather than the behaviors or actions the critical thinker can perform (Lewis & . Critical thinking is an approach to the world, a way of life that goes beyond skill or technique.
Critical thinkers have hearts as well as heads, and their overall attitudes or habits of mind are at least as important as their arsenal of skills. The Critical Thinking Co.™ "Critical thinking is the identification and evaluation of evidence to guide decision making. A critical thinker uses broad in-depth analysis of evidence to make decisions and communicate his/her beliefs clearly and accurately.".
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