The clinical trials on using the epigenome to treat cancer

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The clinical trials on using the epigenome to treat cancer

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California CROs - Contract Research Map There are many ways to find out about clinical trials. Most people who take part in clinical trials do so after hearing about them from their doctors.

Background A tumor marker is a substance such as a protein, antigen or hormone in the body that may indicate the presence of cancer. Generally, these markers are specific to certain types of cancer and can be detected in blood, urine and tissue samples.

The body may produce the marker in response to cancer or the tumor itself may produce the marker. The detection of tumor markers may be used to determine a diagnosis or as an indicator of disease cancer progression.

It can also be used to document clinical response to treatment. Tumor markers are normally produced in low quantities by cells in the body. Detection of a higher-than-normal serum level by radioimmunoassay or immunohistochemical techniques usually indicates the presence of a certain type of cancer.

Currently, the main use of tumor mfarkers is to assess a cancer's response to treatment and to check for recurrence.

In some types of cancer, tumor marker levels may reflect the extent or stage of the disease and can be useful in predicting how well the disease will respond to treatment. A decrease or return to normal in the level of a tumor marker may indicate that the cancer has responded favorably to therapy.

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If the tumor marker level rises, it may indicate that the cancer is spreading. Finally, measurements of tumor marker levels may be used after treatment has ended as a part of follow-up care to check for recurrence. However, in many cases the literature states that measurements of tumor marker levels alone are insufficient to diagnose cancer for the following reasons: High levels of B2M are an indicator of certain kinds of cancer, including chronic lymphocytic leukemia, non-Hodgkin's lymphoma and multiple myeloma or kidney disease; Beta Human Chorionic Gonadotropin beta HCG — A type of tumor marker that may be found in higher than normal amounts in individuals with some types of cancer; Calcitonin — Hormone secreted by the thyroid that lowers blood calcium; Calretinin — A calcium-binding protein that is used as a marker in the evaluation of lung cancer and other diseases.

Chromogranin A — A protein found inside neuroendocrine cells, which releases chromogranin A and other hormones into the blood. Chromogranin A may be found in higher than normal amounts in individuals with certain neuroendocrine tumors, small cell lung cancer, prostate cancer and other conditions Guanylyl cyclase c GCC — An enzyme that may be expressed only in the cells that line the intestine from the duodenum to the rectum.

Inhibin — One of two hormones designated inhibin-A and inhibin-B secreted by the gonads by Sertoli cells in the male and the granulosa cells in the female and inhibits the production of follicle-stimulating hormone FSH by the pituitary gland; Lactate Dehydrogenase LDH — Marker used to monitor treatment of testicular cancer; Mucin-1 MUC-1 — Carbohydrate antigen elevated in individuals with tumors of the breast, ovary, lung and prostate as well as other disorders; Napsin A — Protein used as a marker in the evaluation of lung cancer; Prealbumin — Marker of nutritional status and a sensitive indicator of protein synthesis.

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Levels of PSA in the blood often increase in men with prostate cancer. Thyroglobulin — Protein found in the thyroid gland. Some thyroglobulin can be found in the blood and this amount may be measured after thyroid surgery to determine whether thyroid cancer has recurred; Thyroid Transcription Factor-1 TTF-1 — A protein that is used as a tumor marker in the evaluation of lung cancer; Transferrin — A protein in blood plasma that carries iron derived from food intake to the liver, spleen and bone marrow.

Tumors may be evaluated with histology, which involves examination of the structure, especially the microscopic structure, of organic tissues. Methods of detecting tumor markers include, but are not limited to:Cancer Research UK is a registered charity in England and Wales (), Scotland (SC) and the Isle of Man ().

The clinical trials on using the epigenome to treat cancer

A company limited by guarantee. Registered company in England and Wales () and the Isle of Man (F). News Releases View All News Releases. Two physicians condemn use of disease and famine as weapons of war in Yemen - 11/21/, Mass General. Two Massachusetts General Hospital physicians call on medical and public health communities around the world to condemn the attacks on health care facilities and services in Yemen conducted by the Saudi-led coalition in the three-year-old .

This study is to determine first, the recommended Phase 2 dose (RP2D) of NKTR when administered in combination with nivolumab, and then, the clinical benefit, safety, and tolerability of combining NKTR with nivolumab at the RP2D in select patients with Melanoma, Renal Cell Carcinoma, Non-Small Cell Lung Cancer, Urothelial .

Clinical trials for lung cancer test the effectiveness of newer drugs that have been researched and developed over long periods of time. Many clinical trials are safe and able to treat cancer.

Phase II clinical trials focus on a specific cancer type and examine how it responds to the experimental drug or procedure. Phase III clinical trials test whether a new treatment is better than the standard care.

NEWS. Jørgensen L, Gøtzsche P, Jefferson T. The Cochrane HPV vaccine review was incomplete and ignored important evidence of bias.

BMJ Evid Based Med , Jul Prophylactic vaccination against human papillomaviruses to prevent cervical cancer and its precursors.

What are the phases of clinical trials?