What are the implications of GM-technologies for animals? The source document for this Digest states:
Introduction Biodegradation is defined as the biologically catalyzed reduction in complexity of chemical compounds [ 1 ]. Indeed, biodegradation is the process by which organic substances are broken down into smaller compounds by living microbial organisms [ 2 ].
When biodegradation is complete, the process is called "mineralization". However, in most cases the term biodegradation is generally used to describe almost any biologically mediated change in a substrate [ 3 ].
So, understanding the process of biodegradation requires an understanding of the microorganisms that make the process work. The microbial organisms transform the substance through metabolic or enzymatic processes.
It is based on two processes: In growth, an organic pollutant is used as sole source of carbon and energy. This process results in a complete degradation mineralization of organic pollutants. Cometabolism is defined as the metabolism of an organic compound in the presence of a growth substrate that is used as the primary carbon and energy source [ 4 ].
Several microorganisms, including fungi, bacteria and yeasts are involved in biodegradation process. Algae and protozoa reports are scanty regarding their involvement in biodegradation [ 5 ]. Biodegradation processes vary greatly, but frequently the final product of the degradation is carbon dioxide [ 6 ].
Organic material can be degraded aerobically, with oxygen, or anaerobically, without oxygen [ 47 ]. Biodegradable matter is generally organic material such as plant and animal matter and other substances originating from living organisms, or artificial materials that are similar enough to plant and animal matter to be put to use by microorganisms.
Some microorganisms have the astonishing, naturally occurring, microbial catabolic diversity to degrade, transform or accumulate a huge range of compounds including hydrocarbons e.
The term biodegradation is often used in relation to ecology, waste management and mostly associated with environmental remediation bioremediation [ 2 ].
Bioremediation process can be divided into three phases or levels. First, through natural attenuation, contaminants are reduced by native microorganisms without any human augmentation.
Second, biostimulation is employed where nutrients and oxygen are applied to the systems to improve their effectiveness and to accelerate biodegradation. Finally, during bioaugmentation, microorganisms are added to the systems. These supplemental organisms should be more efficient than native flora to degrade the target contaminant [ 9 ].
A feasible remedial technology requires microorganisms being capable of quick adaptation and efficient uses of pollutants of interest in a particular case in a reasonable period of time [ 10 ]. Many factors influence microorganisms to use pollutants as substrates or cometabolize them, like, the genetic potential and certain environmental factors such as temperature, pH, and available nitrogen and phosphorus sources, then, seem to determine the rate and the extent of degradation [ 4 ].
Therefore, applications of genetically engineered microorganisms GEM in bioremediation have received a great deal of attention. These GEM have higher degradative capacity and have been demonstrated successfully for the degradation of various pollutants under defined conditions.
However, ecological and environmental concerns and regulatory constraints are major obstacles for testing GEM in the field [ 11 ]. In this chapter we will try to foster an in-depth understanding of biodegradation process by trying to cover all types of microorganisms implied in degradation of different pollutants.
Moreover, although we are aware that the term biodegradation is often used in relation to ecology, waste management, biomedicine, and the natural environment bioremediation and is now commonly associated with environmentally friendly products, this chapter will mainly give attention to biodegradation in relation to bioremediation through describing processes natural attenuation, biostimulation and bioaugmentation utilizing degradation abilities of microorganisms in bioremediation and factors affecting this process.
Concern about the dangers involved in the growing and harvesting Genetically Modified Organisms (GMOs) has been increasing. Many farmers have adopted the use of these crops due to an increase in. Genetically modified organism: Genetically modified organism, organism whose genome has been engineered in the laboratory in order to favor the expression of desired physiological traits or the production of desired biological products. Learn more about the development and uses of genetically modified organisms in this article. GENETICALLY MODIFIED MICRO-ORGANISMS: Leaking from the Lab? Briefing Number 7 July contained use of genetically modified organisms. 21 HSE () Proposals for Revised Genetically Modified GMMs may not only survive in water, soil or air, they may also be ingested by organisms living in soil. Experiments have shown .
Microorganisms may be genetically engineered for many purposes. One such purpose is for the efficient degradation of pollutants. So, the second scope of this chapter is to demonstrate the importance of some GEM in this process and to describe obstacles for testing GEM in the field, which must be overcome before GEM can provide an effective clean-up process at lower cost.
Figure 1 summarizes the contents of this chapter. Bioremediation of polluants utilizing biodegradation abilities of microorganisms include the natural attenuation, although it may be enhanced by engineered techniques, either by addition of selected microorganisms bioaugmentation or by biostimulation, where nutrients are added.
Genetic engineering is also used to improve the biodegradation capabilities of microorganisms by GEM. Nevertheless, there are many factors affecting the efficiency of this process and risks associated to the use of GEM in the field. Role of microorganisms in biodegradation of pollutants In this chapter, biodegradation is described associated with environmental bioremediation.
Therefore, biodegradation is nature's way of recycling wastes, or breaking down organic matter into nutrients that can be used and reused by other organisms. In the microbiological sense, "biodegradation" means that the decaying of all organic materials is carried out by a huge assortment of life forms comprising mainly bacteria, yeast and fungi, and possibly other organisms.
Bioremediation and biotransformation methods endeavour to harness the astonishing, naturally occurring, microbial catabolic diversity to degrade, transform or accumulate a huge range of compounds including hydrocarbons e. Some biodegradable pollutants In the last few decades, highly toxic organic compounds have been synthesized and released into the environment for direct or indirect application over a long period of time.
Fuels, polychlorinated biphenyls PCBspolycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons PAHspesticides and dyes are some of these types of compounds [ 9 ].Genetically modified micro-organisms (GMMOs) and genetically modified organisms (GMOs) are micro-organisms and organisms in which genetic material has been purposely altered through genetic engineering in a way that does not occur naturally.
However, all GMMO/GMO shipments by air, whether domestic or international, must . By Dr. Mercola. Monsanto and other biotech companies claim genetically modified (GM) crops have no impact on the environment and are perfectly safe to eat. higher organisms do not.
What are the dangers of GM DNA from horizontal gene transfer? Horizontal transfer of DNA into the genome of cells per se is harmful, but there are .
Genetically-modified organisms (GMOs) are plants or animals created in laboratories by inserting genes from one species into the DNA sequence of another, thereby producing new life forms that never existed before with specific characteristics (such as, for agricultural purposes, increased water retention or the ability to grow faster on less feed).
While not every microorganism is dangerous, some microorganisms can cause disease and infections in humans and other living things. Microorganisms, also called microbes, also contribute to decomposition and spoilage of food, and they can leave toxic waste products behind even if they are eradicated from the contaminated material.
AFS Contained Use of Genetically modified Micro-organisms Provisions of the Swedish Work Environment Authority and General Recommendations on the Implementation of the. Genetically Modified Micro-organisms and Genetically Modified Organisms (UN ) Magnetized Material, when there is no Shipper's Declaration required (UN ) Dangerous Goods via FedEx Express Package Services — U.S.