A literature review of the issues of involuntary commitment, mental health recovery, and peer support, including the established values and ethics of these initiatives; a historical perspective of past and current recovery efforts in Vermont; and related mental health programs. Development of a proposal for the State of Vermont to fund a study Moving Ahead Project to determine those mental health recovery and peer support initiatives that might be helpful to people who have repeated involuntary mental health commitments.
Rob Hoskin BlogsBrain and BehaviourCognitive PsychologyUncategorized A common methodology in behavioural science is to use self-report questionnaires to gather data. Data from these questionnaire can be used to identify relationships between scores on the variable s that the questionnaire is assumed to measure and either performance on behavioural tasks, physiological measures taken during an experiment, or even scores obtained from other questionnaires some studies just report on the correlations between batches of self-report measures!
Self-report measures are popular for a number of reasons. Secondly they can be easily implemented to large samples, especially with the advent of on-line questionnaire distribution sites such as Survey Monkey.
Finally they can be used to measure constructs that would be difficult to obtain with behavioural or physiological measures for example facets of personality such as introversion.
I therefore think it is important to discuss potential problems with self-report measures. More importantly they are normally also tested for validity, to check that the questionnaire measures what it claims to measure.
Such tests are done following the logic that the questionnaire should be able to discriminate participants in a similar way to relevant non-self report measures. While such tests can act to increase confidence that a questionnaire Thesis respondents of the study measuring what it claims to measure they are not foolproof.
For example just because a depression questionnaire can discriminate between patients and controls does not mean that it measures depression well, as the two groups will likely vary in several different ways.
Likewise a questionnaire that distinguishes between patients and controls may not be able to identify the presumably more subtle differences between depressed and non-depressed healthy individuals, or the range of depressive tendencies within the healthy population.
In fact that are a large number of reasons why questionnaire may not be entirely valid, including the following: The degree to which this is a problem will undoubtedly vary with the topic of the questionnaire, for example participants are less likely to be honest about measures relating to sexual behaviour, or drug use, than they are about caffeine consumption, although it is unwise to assume, even when you are measuring something relatively benign, that participants will always be truthful.
Worse, the level at which participants will want to manage how they appear will no doubt vary depending on personality, which means that the level of dishonesty may vary significantly between different groups that a study is trying to compare.
Introspective ability — Even if a participant is trying to be honest, they may lack the introspective ability to provide an accurate response to a question. We are probably all aware of people who appear to view themselves in a completely different light to how others see them.
Undoubtedly we are all to some extent unable to introspectively assess ourselves completely accurately. Therefore any self-report information we provide may be incorrect despite our best efforts to be honest and accurate. Understanding — Participants may also varying regarding their understanding or interpretation of particular questions.
This is less a problem with questionnaires measuring concrete things like alcohol consumption, but is a very big problem when measuring more abstract concepts such as personality. Even if I could conjure an understanding of what the question was getting at, it would be impossible to ensure that everyone who completed the questionnaire interpreted that question in the same way that I did.
There is research which suggests that people have different ways of filling out ratings scales 1. This naturally produces differences in scores between participants that reflects something other than what the questionnaire was designed to measure.
A related problem is that of producing nonsense distinctions.
For example studies sometimes appear where participants are given a huge rating scale to choose from, for example a scale of to rate the confidence of a decision as to whether two lines are the same length 2.
Is anyone really capable of segmenting their certainty over such a decision into different units? Is there really any meaningful difference, even within the same individual, between a certainty of 86 and a certainty of 72 in such a paradigm? Any differences found in such experiments therefore run the risk of being spurious.— Fox News, "American kids eating fast food more often, ignoring healthier substitutes, study says," 29 Sep.
In each experiment, respondents were randomly . Chapter IV PROFILE OF THE RESPONDENTS in this study a set of personal characteristics namely, age, sex, education, occupation, income etc of the respondents have been examined and presented in this chapter Age Age of the respondents is one of the most important characteristics in respondents are above .
This paper is part of a study of employee engagement and its relationship with seafarer safety, performance and retention.
This section focuses on the impact of seafarer turnover, identifies and understands drivers of retention and their relevance in shipping, and explores the relationship of engagement with retention.
File Format: Microsoft Word The researcher should link and relate the background of the study to the proposed locale, research design, population sampling or respondents of the study, research periodicals, journals, thesis or dissertation (published or unpublished).
Thesis Respondents Letter – Thesis Notes. 16 Sep Our group chosen you to be one of our respondents of this thesis study. We hope that you will be able to give your precious time to answer our Selecting the Survey Method - Social Research. Respondents are those persons who have been invited to participate in a particular study and have actually taken part in the study.
This definition applies to both qualitative and quantitative studies.